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Globally, an estimated 3.6 billion people lack access to appropriate sanitation, 2.3 billion lack basic hygiene services, and 2 billion people use water sources contaminated by feces causing a myriad of diseases (WHO & UNICEF 2021). This lack of access is further exasperated in conditions of humanitarian crises, where systems are either strained or non-existent. Muslim Aid is committed to ensuring its Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) programming in humanitarian settings is guided by evidence and knowledge, and supports the most vulnerable members of our communities including people with disabilities and older people.

This research reports reflects this commitment by MA, and aims to provide insights which will guide MA, and other WASH implementors in the sector, in designing and implementing inclusive WASH programming. This study explored barriers to inclusion faced by older people and people with disabilities face WASH programming in complex internally displaced people’s (IDP) settings in  Sudan. The study focused on technical/environmental, institutional/organisational as well as attitudinal barriers using a Participatory Action Research Methodology (PAR) allowing the voices of people with disabilities and older people to be raised.

The MA team would like to thank the authors for their work on this paper: Dr. Hazel Barrett and Dr. Pascal Niyankuru at The Centre for Trust, Peace, and Social Relations at Coventry University, Awadia Mohammed, and Mohammad Iqbal Rafiq at Muslim Aid. We would also like to thank the partners (Coventry University, SORR, and AALK), the National WASH cluster in Sudan, our research participants, and the Sudanese Ministry of Health, without whom this research would not have been feasible.

This research is funded by Elrha’s Humanitarian Innovation Fund (HIF) programme, a grant making facility which improves outcomes for affected people by humanitarian crises by identifying, nurturing and sharing more effective, innovative and scalable solutions. Elrha’s HIF is funded by aid from the Foreign Commonwealth, and Development Office (FCDO). Visit to find out more


Please Find the Research Report Attached Below:

Muslim Aid ELRHA WASH Programme Sudan 2021 Report Web

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